the copper bearer network, even if VDSL-based, is facing a watershed moment. The economic benefits of creating gigabit communities is well understood, but how can this be achieved?
The obvious way to achieve this has always been via point to point (P2P) fiber networks, frequently using switched Ethernet equipment. This has suited new local operators reasonably well since, if building from nothing in a relatively small area, the cost of an all-fiber network can be justified. However, for national telecommunications operators it poses a real challenge. Many large carriers have invested in GPON or GEPON to deliver sub 1 Gb/s services or VDSL to deliver a 100 Mb/s service.
To uprate a GPON or GEPON system to deliver 1 Gb/s per customer service requires uprating the PON to NG-PON (shared 10 Gb/s downstream and shared 2.5 Gb/s upstream). However, this still does not provide a true customer experience of 1 Gb/s; for this to occur NG-PON2 is required and this is still not fully ready.